.. include:: ../header.txt ======================== The Docutils Publisher ======================== :Author: David Goodger :Contact: docutils-develop@lists.sourceforge.net :Date: $Date$ :Revision: $Revision$ :Copyright: This document has been placed in the public domain. .. contents:: The ``docutils.core.Publisher`` class is the core of Docutils, managing all the processing and relationships between components. See `PEP 258`_ for an overview of Docutils components. Configuration is done via `runtime settings`_ assembled from several sources. The *Publisher convenience functions* are the normal entry points for using Docutils as a library. .. _PEP 258: ../peps/pep-0258.html Publisher Convenience Functions =============================== There are several convenience functions in the ``docutils.core`` module. Each of these functions sets up a `docutils.core.Publisher` object, then calls its ``publish()`` method. ``docutils.core.Publisher.publish()`` handles everything else. See the module docstring, ``help(docutils.core)``, and the function docstrings, e.g., ``help(docutils.core.publish_string)``, for details and a description of the function arguments. .. TODO: generate API documentation with Sphinx and add links to it. publish_cmdline() ----------------- Function for custom `command-line front-end tools`_ (like ``tools/rst2html.py``) or "console_scripts" `entry points`_ (like `core.rst2html()`) with file I/O. In addition to writing the output document to a file-like object, also returns it as `str` instance (rsp. `bytes` for binary output document formats). .. _command-line front-end tools: ../howto/cmdline-tool.html .. _entry points: https://packaging.python.org/en/latest/specifications/entry-points/ publish_file() -------------- For programmatic use with file I/O. In addition to writing the output document to a file-like object, also returns it as `str` instance (rsp. `bytes` for binary output document formats). publish_string() ---------------- For programmatic use with _`string I/O`: Input can be a `str` or `bytes` instance. `bytes` are decoded with input_encoding_. Output is handled similar to `xml.etree.ElementTree.tostring()`__: * return a `bytes` instance, if output_encoding_ is set to an encoding registered with Python's "codecs_" module (default: "utf-8"), * return `str` instance, if output_encoding_ is set to the special value ``"unicode"``. __ https://docs.python.org/3/library/xml.etree.elementtree.html #xml.etree.ElementTree.tostring .. Caution:: The "output_encoding" and "output_encoding_error_handler" `runtime settings`_ may affect the content of the output document: Some document formats contain an *encoding declaration*, some formats use substitutions for non-encodable characters. Use `publish_parts()`_ to get a `str` instance of the output document as well as the values of the output_encoding_ and output_encoding_error_handler_ runtime settings. *This function is provisional* because in Python 3 the name and behaviour no longer match. .. _codecs: https://docs.python.org/3/library/codecs.html publish_doctree() ----------------- Parse string input (cf. `string I/O`_) into a `Docutils document tree`_ data structure (doctree). The doctree can be modified, pickled & unpickled, etc., and then reprocessed with `publish_from_doctree()`_. publish_from_doctree() ---------------------- Render from an existing `document tree`_ data structure (doctree). Returns the output document as a memory object (cf. `string I/O`_). *This function is provisional* because in Python 3 the name and behaviour of the *string output* interface no longer match. publish_programmatically() -------------------------- Auxilliary function used by `publish_file()`_, `publish_string()`_, `publish_doctree()`_, and `publish_parts()`_. Applications should not need to call this function directly. .. _publish-parts-details: publish_parts() --------------- For programmatic use with string input (cf. `string I/O`_). Returns a dictionary of document parts as `str` instances. [#binary-output]_ Dictionary keys are the part names. Each Writer component may publish a different set of document parts, described below. Example: post-process the output document with a custom function ``post_process()`` before encoding with user-customizable encoding and errors :: def publish_bytes_with_postprocessing(*args, **kwargs): parts = publish_parts(*args, **kwargs) out_str = post_process(parts['whole']) return out_str.encode(parts['encoding'], parts['errors']) There are more usage examples in the `docutils/examples.py`_ module. .. _docutils/examples.py: ../../docutils/examples.py .. _ODT: ../user/odt.html Parts Provided By All Writers ````````````````````````````` _`encoding` The `output_encoding`_ setting. _`errors` The `output_encoding_error_handler`_ setting. _`version` The version of Docutils used. _`whole` Contains the entire formatted document. [#binary-output]_ .. [#binary-output] Output documents in binary formats (e.g. ODT_) are stored as a `bytes` instance. Parts Provided By the HTML Writers `````````````````````````````````` HTML4 Writer ^^^^^^^^^^^^ _`body` ``parts['body']`` is equivalent to parts['fragment_']. It is *not* equivalent to parts['html_body_']. _`body_prefix` ``parts['body_prefix']`` contains::
and, if applicable::
...
_`body_pre_docinfo` ``parts['body_pre_docinfo]`` contains (as applicable)::

...

...

_`body_suffix` ``parts['body_suffix']`` contains::
(the end-tag for ``
``), the footer division if applicable:: and:: _`docinfo` ``parts['docinfo']`` contains the document bibliographic data, the docinfo field list rendered as a table. _`footer` ``parts['footer']`` contains the document footer content, meant to appear at the bottom of a web page, or repeated at the bottom of every printed page. _`fragment` ``parts['fragment']`` contains the document body (*not* the HTML ````). In other words, it contains the entire document, less the document title, subtitle, docinfo, header, and footer. _`head` ``parts['head']`` contains ```` tags and the document ``...``. _`head_prefix` ``parts['head_prefix']`` contains the XML declaration, the DOCTYPE declaration, the ```` start tag and the ```` start tag. _`header` ``parts['header']`` contains the document header content, meant to appear at the top of a web page, or repeated at the top of every printed page. _`html_body` ``parts['html_body']`` contains the HTML ```` content, less the ```` and ```` tags themselves. _`html_head` ``parts['html_head']`` contains the HTML ```` content, less the stylesheet link and the ```` and ```` tags themselves. Since `publish_parts()` returns `str` instances which do not know about the output encoding, the "Content-Type" meta tag's "charset" value is left unresolved, as "%s":: The interpolation should be done by client code. _`html_prolog` ``parts['html_prolog]`` contains the XML declaration and the doctype declaration. The XML declaration's "encoding" attribute's value is left unresolved, as "%s":: The interpolation should be done by client code. _`html_subtitle` ``parts['html_subtitle']`` contains the document subtitle, including the enclosing ``

`` and ``

`` tags. _`html_title` ``parts['html_title']`` contains the document title, including the enclosing ``

`` and ``

`` tags. _`meta` ``parts['meta']`` contains all ```` tags. _`stylesheet` ``parts['stylesheet']`` contains the embedded stylesheet or stylesheet link. _`subtitle` ``parts['subtitle']`` contains the document subtitle text and any inline markup. It does not include the enclosing ``

`` and ``

`` tags. _`title` ``parts['title']`` contains the document title text and any inline markup. It does not include the enclosing ``

`` and ``

`` tags. PEP/HTML Writer ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ The PEP/HTML writer provides the same parts as the `HTML4 writer`_, plus the following: _`pepnum` ``parts['pepnum']`` contains the PEP number (extracted from the `header preamble`__). __ https://peps.python.org/pep-0001/#pep-header-preamble S5/HTML Writer ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ The S5/HTML writer provides the same parts as the `HTML4 writer`_. HTML5 Writer ^^^^^^^^^^^^ The HTML5 writer provides the same parts as the `HTML4 writer`_. However, it uses semantic HTML5 elements for the document, header and footer. Parts Provided by the "LaTeX2e" and "XeTeX" Writers ``````````````````````````````````````````````````` See the template files default.tex_, titlepage.tex_, titlingpage.tex_, and xelatex.tex_ for examples how these parts can be combined into a valid LaTeX document. abstract ``parts['abstract']`` contains the formatted content of the 'abstract' docinfo field. body ``parts['body']`` contains the document's content. In other words, it contains the entire document, except the document title, subtitle, and docinfo. This part can be included into another LaTeX document body using the ``\input{}`` command. body_pre_docinfo ``parts['body_pre_docinfo]`` contains the ``\maketitle`` command. dedication ``parts['dedication']`` contains the formatted content of the 'dedication' docinfo field. docinfo ``parts['docinfo']`` contains the document bibliographic data, the docinfo field list rendered as a table. With ``--use-latex-docinfo`` 'author', 'organization', 'contact', 'address' and 'date' info is moved to titledata. 'dedication' and 'abstract' are always moved to separate parts. fallbacks ``parts['fallbacks']`` contains fallback definitions for Docutils-specific commands and environments. head_prefix ``parts['head_prefix']`` contains the declaration of documentclass and document options. latex_preamble ``parts['latex_preamble']`` contains the argument of the ``--latex-preamble`` option. pdfsetup ``parts['pdfsetup']`` contains the PDF properties ("hyperref" package setup). requirements ``parts['requirements']`` contains required packages and setup before the stylesheet inclusion. stylesheet ``parts['stylesheet']`` contains the embedded stylesheet(s) or stylesheet loading command(s). subtitle ``parts['subtitle']`` contains the document subtitle text and any inline markup. title ``parts['title']`` contains the document title text and any inline markup. titledata ``parts['titledata]`` contains the combined title data in ``\title``, ``\author``, and ``\date`` macros. With ``--use-latex-docinfo``, this includes the 'author', 'organization', 'contact', 'address' and 'date' docinfo items. .. _default.tex: https://docutils.sourceforge.io/docutils/writers/latex2e/default.tex .. _titlepage.tex: https://docutils.sourceforge.io/docutils/writers/latex2e/titlepage.tex .. _titlingpage.tex: https://docutils.sourceforge.io/docutils/writers/latex2e/titlingpage.tex .. _xelatex.tex: https://docutils.sourceforge.io/docutils/writers/latex2e/xelatex.tex .. _runtime settings: Configuration ============= Docutils is configured by *runtime settings* assembled from several sources: * *settings specifications* of the selected components (reader, parser, writer), * the ``settings_overrides`` argument of the `Publisher convenience functions`_ (see below), * *configuration files* (unless disabled), and * *command-line options* (if enabled). Docutils overlays default and explicitly specified values from these sources such that settings behave the way we want and expect them to behave. For details, see `Docutils Runtime Settings`_. The individual settings are described in `Docutils Configuration`_. To pass application-specific setting defaults to the Publisher convenience functions, use the ``settings_overrides`` parameter. Pass a dictionary of setting names & values, like this:: app_defaults = {'input_encoding': 'ascii', 'output_encoding': 'latin-1'} output = publish_string(..., settings_overrides=app_defaults) Settings from command-line options override configuration file settings, and they override application defaults. See `Docutils Runtime Settings`_ or the docstring of `publish_programmatically()` for a description of all `configuration arguments`_ of the Publisher convenience functions. .. _configuration arguments: runtime-settings.html#convenience-functions Encodings ========= Docutils supports all `standard encodings`_ and encodings registered__ with the codecs_ module. The special value "unicode" can be used with `publish_string()`_ to skip encoding and return a `str` instance instead of `bytes`. __ https://docs.python.org/3/library/codecs.html#codecs.register The **input encoding** can be specified with the `input_encoding`_ setting. The default is "utf-8". The **output encoding** can be specified with the `output_encoding`_ setting. The default is "utf-8", too. .. Caution:: Docutils may introduce non-ASCII text if you use `auto-symbol footnotes`_. In non-English documents, also auto-generated labels may contain non-ASCII characters. auto-detection -------------- Up to Docutils 0.21, the input encoding was detected from a `Unicode byte order mark` (BOM_) or an *encoding declaration* [#magic-comment]_ in the source unless an input_encoding_ was specified. The default input encoding changed to "utf-8" in Docutils 0.22. Currently, auto-detection can be selected with an input_encoding_ value ``None`` (rsp. an empty string in a configuration file). However, input encoding "auto-detection_" is deprecated and **will be removed** in Docutils 1.0. See the `inspecting_codecs`_ package for a possible replacement. .. [#magic-comment] A comment like :: .. text encoding: on the first or second line of a reStructuredText source defines `` as the source's input encoding. Examples: (using formats recognized by popular editors) :: .. -*- mode: rst -*- -*- coding: latin1 -*- or:: .. vim: set fileencoding=cp737 : More precisely, the first and second line are searched for the following regular expression:: coding[:=]\s*([-\w.]+) The first group of this expression is then interpreted as encoding name. If the first line matches the second line is ignored. .. _codecs: https://docs.python.org/3/library/codecs.html .. _standard encodings: https://docs.python.org/3/library/codecs.html#standard-encodings .. _input_encoding: ../user/config.html#input-encoding .. _BOM: https://docs.python.org/3/library/codecs.html#codecs.BOM .. _output_encoding: ../user/config.html#output-encoding .. _output_encoding_error_handler: ../user/config.html#output-encoding-error-handler .. _auto-symbol footnotes: ../ref/rst/restructuredtext.html#auto-symbol-footnotes .. _document tree: .. _Docutils document tree: ../ref/doctree.html .. _Docutils Runtime Settings: ./runtime-settings.html .. _Docutils Configuration: ../user/config.html .. _inspecting_codecs: https://codeberg.org/milde/inspecting-codecs